The Persian Wars

By: Dan Haber, Mike Ross

Started 546 ended 479

546 Spartans gains leadership over most of Peloponese; formed the Peloponnesean League

540 Persians overcome Greek cities in Asia Minor which pay tribute and a tyrant supported by the Persians to control the city.

528 to 510 Peisistratus sons, Hippias and Hipparchus, ruled Athens

520 to 480 King Cleomenes, one of the two kings of Sparta

518 to 438 Pindar, greatest lyric poet

514 Hipparchus, brother of the tyrant Hippias, assassinated by Harmodius and Aristogeiton

513 Darius and Persian army invade Europe in Thrace but not Greek peninsula

510 Hippias deposed by Spartans and Alcmaeonidae clan. Athens becomes part of Peloponesean League. Hippias receives Persian asylum

508 to 506 Isagoras and Spartans under Cleomenes demand Cleisthenes and 700 families of Alcmaeonidae exile. Try to dissolve Council of Areopagus, are deposed by Athenians; Cleisthenes takes power. Athens attempts alliance with Artaphernes, satrap of Lydia

508 to 500 Cleisthenes, democratic reforms, from wealth-based to region-based. Followed lead of other cities who were casting off traditional political systems in reorganizing voting districts such as Sicyon, Corinth and Miletus. 1) Divided Athenian citizens in ten groups called 'tribes', not heriditary but by region. Fifty from each 'tribe' constituted the Council of 500, appointed annually, which voted to recommend actions to the assembly. 2) Established system of ostracism to check potential of tyrannies; assembly wrote name of most feared politician; had to get minimum of 600 votes; politician with most votes was exiled for 10 years. 499 Artaphernes, Persian satrap, demands Athens restore Hippias as tyrant. Athens alliance with Persia ceases.

499 to 494 Ionian(Asia Minor) revolt against Persians

498 Athenians & Ertrians join Ionian revolt, capture and sack Sardis

496 to 406 Sophocles, leading tragic playwright

494 Miletus sacked by Persians

493 Themistocles an archon of Athens

490 Greece invaded by the Persians under Darius. Hippias guided invading navy to Marathon where Peisistratus, his father, landed in 546. Defeated at the Battle of Marathon by Athenians led by Miltiades.

488 First ostracism in Athens. Aristotle says it was authored by Cleisthenes. Person receiving 6000 votes sent into exile for 10 years, but his property was not confiscated and could return after 10 years with full rights.

484 to 420 Herodotus, first historian(Persian Wars)

483 Themistocles persuades Athenians to build ships to with silver discovered at Laureum. Gave reason war against Aegina, but really to defend against possible Persian invasion

481 Hellenic League founded to defend against Persians. Both Athens & Sparta members

480 Second Persian invasion under Xerxes. Battle of Thermopylae, King Leonidas leads 300 Spartans could not hold pass against Persians. Persians invade Athens and destroy temples on Acropolis 480 Battle of Salamis. After Thermopylae, Persians march south capturing and burning Athens. In the Bay of Salamis, Themistocles(who had ships built in 483 for this purpose) amasses armada of Greek ships; with "Greek fire" ships ram into big Persian vessels, setting them afire and winning the battle.

Xerxes's path

479 After defeat at Salamis, Xerxes returns and Mardonius leads Persian troops to conquer central Greece. Persian general Mardonius attempts to gain alliance with Athens. When it fails, sacks Attica. Athens doesn't get support from Sparta quickly and threatens to ally with Persians. Spartan Pausanias and Athenians defeat Mardonius at Platea

478 Pausanias, Spartan regent, leads Hellenic League fleet, capturing Cyprus & Byzantium from Persians. Founding of Delian League dominated by Athens